For the most part, people realize that they no longer have to produce large numbers of offspring because the offspring they do produce have a higher chance of surviving to adulthood. In the second stage, birth rates remain high so with fewer deaths the population increases rapidly. Is the economic system of a country related to the birth and death rates of the country's population? This can be seen in the Mexico example, and it is responsible for the continued growth in the population of Sweden in the 1980s. Some African countries have stagnated at the second stage, for lack of industrial development. This is an example of positive population momentum. Thus unhygienic conditions, poor diet and the lack of medical facilities are the reasons for a high mortality rate in this stage. During this stage, a significant change in social outlook of the people has taken place under the impact of urbanization, industrialisation and high rate of literacy.
Hence, it is unable to take into account evolutionary changes in the process of population growth and classify diverse population into distinct but coherent stages of the development process. Because of psychological modernization parents desire smaller families, and because of their better education they can plan their family size. Death rate is high during this stage for a number of reasons. Third, there are better medical facilities like more doctors and hospitals available of preventive and curative medical facilities. This example of uneven distribution would be a topic of demography, which is the study of the size, density, and distribution of the human population.
Also, the overall scientific and technological progress and access to it resulted in a faster drop in the death rates of the developing nations. In the third stage beginning with the 20th century, birth rates began to decline from 35 per thousand and have continued so for about a century now nearing 15 per thousand. The concept of demographic transition is a good predictor of how a county will change both in population size and socially as it transitions from non-industrial to industrial. But the birth rate is almost stable. Thirdly, there is absence of effective medical facilities. A major factor was the sharp decline in the death rate for infectious diseases has fallen from about 11 per 1,000 to less than 1 per 1,000. Low birth rates are attributed to the modern lifestyle, individualistic living, easy access to and increased use of contraceptives, nucleated families, realizing the increasing costs and efforts in upbringing of children, etc.
These challenges, linked to configurations of population and the dynamics of distribution, inevitably raise the issue of town and country planning. It does not lay emphasis on food supply like the Malthusian theory, nor does it develop a pessimistic outlook towards population growth. Conclusion to the Theory of Demographic Transition: The theory of demographic transition is the most acceptable theory of population growth. In contrast, France is one of the developed nations whose migratory balance is rather weak, which is an original feature at the European level. Moreover, increased specialisation following rising income levels and the consequent social and economic mobility make it costly and inconvenient to rear a large number of children. Technological advances could also be a possible cause in a decrease in death rates i. As the country's grow in economic and industrial strength they go higher up the stages.
Death rates also continued to decline but seem to have stabilised between 12 to 15 per cent in Western Europe. Demography studies the quantitative changes in human population, like births, deaths, income, age structure, which inform about the changing structures of human populations and societies. With improvements in the standard of living and the dietary habits of the people, the life expectancy also increases. People get more and better quality food products, medical and health facilities are expanded. This leads to Population Explosion.
Expanding demand for education was accommodated by an active public school building program. Causes-people chose to have less children; economic change and social customs. The decline in birth rate varies from country to country, as does the time frame in which it is experienced. It has been propounded by W. Men and women prefer to marry late.
Death rates were high due to disease and a lack of hygiene. Germany, Japan and Italy are seen as examples of this stage. In this stage, birth rate and death rate both go down. Roman Catholics, for example, had a group preference for larger families and an aversion to birth control techniques until the 1960s. The birth rates and death rates remain low due the economic and social changes of the previous stages. Third Stage: In this stage, the fertility rate declines and tends to equal the death rate so that the growth rate of population declines. This is illustrated in Fig.
It represents a declining trend in population. The tertiary sector consisting of transport, commerce, banking and insurance is underdeveloped. Here urbanization- industrialization-modernization factors together resulted in lowering of the birth rate, and lowering of the death rate too. This theory states that every country passes through different stages of population development. Industrial Stage The third stage of the demographic transition is the industrial stage, which is characterized by an increasing population with declining birth rates and low death rates. First by birth rate is high due to illiteracy traditional social and religious beliefs and early age of marriage. Consequently, species diversity is preserved through mechanisms that keep population sizes in check, such as predation.
This stage is associated with undeveloped, low output and agricultural dominated conditions. With the decline in the death rate and no change in the birth rate, population increases at a rapid rate. And finally economic development brings about improvement in the means of transportation which makes the supply of food regular. Caused by Industrial Revolution in Europe and North America; Medical Revolution in Asia, Africa and Latin America. In Stage One the majority of death is. The lowering fertility rates reaching below replacement levels in highly developed countries show indications of an aging population. Demographic Indicators Birth Rate: 13 per thousand Total fertility rate: 1.
The final stage is the post-industrial stage, which is when the human population stabilizes, due to low birth rates and low death rates. Stage 4: This stage is the post-industrial phase, and categorizes many countries in Europe and Japan currently, where birth rates, as well as death rates, have also come down to very low levels. People discard old customs, dogmas and beliefs, and develop individualistic spirit and break with the joint family. On the other hand, the developing countries present a different scenario. Popular education leads to popular enlightenment and opens the way to knowledge. Medical and health facilities are expanded.