These were years of close professional association with Tallis, his former mentor and senior by some 40 years. In either case, Byrd's Latin works were well-known during his lifetime, and continue to be the most widely performed of his compositions. He was born in England, and began what was to be an outstanding career in music, from a very early age. In 1563 he was appointed organist of Lincoln Cathedral, and by 1572 joined the Chapel Royal where he shared organist duties with Tallis. Byrd visited many market towns and indulged his curiosity about the commercial life of these places, as well as their architecture, libraries, and art collections.
However, Byrd did provide for a glimpse of contemporary procedures in the circulation of music with his expressed resolve to expose untrue copies of his works then abroad. After being educated in England, he became active in the politics of colonial America. See his diaries and other writings 1941, 1942, 1970 ; biography by P. The Crown rejected the petition, and Byrd lost his post and failed in a subsequent bid for the influential and lucrative post of secretary of the colony. That is why apart from being fined for recusancy, he did not have to face any kind of persecution.
In England Byrd sold the receiver generalship to a Virginian for £500. The first regulated the quality and distribution of tobacco exports, and the second established a monopoly over commerce with the natives. Although this period, often referred to as the Lincoln years, was marred with controversy, it also contributed significantly to some of the techniques Byrd familiarized himself with that he would put to good use in the later years of his professional career. Later he accepted a position in the Royal Chapel of Queen Elizabeth, and retired at the age of fifty to a home at Stondon Massey near the Essex estate of one of his richest patrons, John Petre. It may have been a portion or precursor of a larger history of Virginia that does not survive. Byrd showed a continuing interest in land development, public and private. Byrd's most ambitious literary effort, it was based on rough notes that he had kept on the expedition.
What set apart this collection was a new form of song texture, where most of the compositions would be arranged in five and six parts. Although Byrd had written many English pieces, he is best remembered for his Latin sacred music. Nearly four years after initiating the process, he took his seat on the Council on September 12, 1709. In 1572, however, he was replaced at Lincoln Cathedral by Thomas Butler, whom he himself had chosen, and it is clear that at that time he moved to London, where he shared the post of organist with Tallis. Later he became a chorister at the Chapel Royal and began composing music while being trained under Thomas Tallis.
Born in , Byrd was educated and practiced law in England. All this, music printing was to change. The formal demands Byrd sets for himself in these works are enormous, and the verve and depth with which he carries them off is as incredible as any piece of Western instrumental writing. It was during this period that he was charged with recusancy, for which he was troubled the rest of his life, and that he acquired the first of his leases, which were to embroil him in litigation from this time forward. See Also: ; England; music William Byrd, 1674—1744, American colonial writer, planter, and government official; son of William 1652—1704. Byrd's polished style and crisp wit, in addition to his valuable record of Southern life, have won him a reputation as one of the foremost colonial authors.
Talented composers from all over the continent of were invited to take up posts in the Chapel Royal, and Byrd contributed his own compositions from a young age. Byrd's last publication was Psalmes, Songs and Sonnets and was published in 1611. Again, these motets are generally shorter than those in the Cantiones sacrae collections and are obviously intended for use by those who sought formal musical expression of their Catholic faith. These pieces were published with text underlays to each part, as was the fashion at the time, but Byrd also indicates that they can be performed with a single singer with viol consort accompaniment — a specifically English practice. It is, however, out of date, as is Frank Howes, William Byrd 1928. But in the two books of Gradualia which marked his next flurry of editorial activity, he publicly avowed the recusancy for which he and members of his family had already been called to account numerous times. Born in Lincolnshire, he joined the Chapel Royal as a boy and apprenticed to.
Some contemporaries believed that he assisted with the removal of Spotswood from office the following year, but Byrd took no credit for Spotswood's dismissal, which resulted largely from the loss of political power by the lieutenant governor's English sponsors. As their titles indicate, these collections contain songs in a variety of genres, from sacred to English secular. Symptomatic of his feelings, Byrd began wooing a prospective replacement within two months. He was a highly cultivated colonial gentleman who read widely and assembled one of the greatest colonial libraries, consisting of more than 3,500 volumes of history, biography, travel, drama, divinity, architecture, gardening, law, art, science, medicine, and etiquette. It would be impossible to over-estimate his subsequent influence on the music of England, the Low Countries, and Germany. In October 1697 the young barrister was admitted to Lincoln's Inn, and two months later he undertook the defense of Governor , whom Commissary had charged with impeding the development of the new College of William and Mary.
Some of his most famous works include the song books released at the end of the 1500s. The powerful influence of his father and his own superior education helped Byrd win to the House of Burgesses for the autumn 1696 session, representing Henrico County, but he withdrew from the assembly in October and returned to England to practice law. The Earl of Salisbury Pavan and Galliard is a familiar recital piece as are the Variations on Sellinger's Round and The Carman's Whistle. Despite his conversion to Roman Catholicism at a time of great religious uncertainty in England, he was able to forge a successful career in the service of monarchs both Catholic and Protestant. Byrd was a Catholic in Protestant England, and though this position demanded a certain amount of seclusion and discretion, his loyalty to the Crown was never in doubt. He was a distant father and husband, psychologically and physically, and often left his family for extended periods on business, political, or social trips.
As a student of Thomas Tallis he was exposed to music of the Chapel Royal and the best of the English tradition. Fellowes, William Byrd 1936; 2d ed. Shortly afterward he was appointed to the governor's Council, and in the 1720s he served as the London agent of the. The English composer William Byrd ca. On the whole, though, the effect of this procedure was to bring Byrd's compositions into alignment with the Italian madrigal, by then new only in England, and they are rather stiff and unwieldy part-songs compared to the livelier polyphonic works of the Italians. For Virginians like Byrd, moreover, the Native Americans offered a somewhat risky but enormously profitable wellspring of trade, at a time when such trade was limited to those licensed by the royal governor. At the death of Mary and the succession of the Protestant queen , Byrd and his Catholic sympathies were out of favor.
Several anonymously or pseudonymously published works are attributed to Byrd. The most striking element found within the tunes in these collections was the inclusion of vocal parallels, which Byrd synced in line with the instrumental sections of the songs. These publications comprise one of the supreme testaments in Western music. In the Cantiones sacrae Byrd clearly though tacitly went against the policy of the English Reformation, intended not only to remove the political hegemony of Rome from England but also to expunge Latin from the liturgy. At his thirtieth birthday Byrd was unmarried, lacked an official post, and faced uncertain immediate prospects in England. Byrd was a Roman Catholic in relatively newly Protestant England.